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Abrasive
A substance capable of removing material from another substance in machining, abrasion or polishing.

Abrasive Wear
The removal or displacement of materials from a surface when hard particles slide or roll across the surface under pressure. The particles may be loose or may be part of another surface in contact with the surface being worn.

Abrasion
The process of grinding or wearing away through the use of abrasives, a roughening or scratching of a surface due to abrasive wear.

Abrasion Rate
The rate which material is removed from the surface during abrasion. It is usually expressed in terms of thickness removed per unit of time or distance traversed.

Accelerated Cooling
Employed to improve resistance to impact (toughness) and refine the grain size of certain grades and thickness of plates. Such cooling is accomplished by fans to provide circulation of air during cooling, or by a water spray or dip.

Acid Bottom
Furnace bottom (hearth) of a melting furnace made of acid refractory such as silica bricks.

Acid Brittleness
Brittleness induced in sheet and strip pickled in acid solution to remove scale or during electroplating. This is commonly attributed to absorption of hydrogen.

Acid Fluxes
Used to remove unwanted basic impurities to form a fusible slag. Silica (SiO2), available as sand, gravel, and quartz in large quantities and in a sufficiently pure state, is the only substance that is used as a strictly acid flux.

Acid Process
A steel making process in which steel is refined under an acid slag in an acid refractory lined furnace or converter.

Acid Refractory
A refractory material, acidic in chemical composition and containing high proportion of silica, that is, silica sand and ganister.

Acid Steel
Steel made by acid process.

Adhesive Wear
The removal or displacement of materials from a surface by the welding together and subsequent shearing of minute areas of two surfaces that slide across the surface under pressure. In advance stages, may lead to galling.

Adjustable Mould Width
In order to minimize both the time required to change a mould as well as the mould inventory during slab casting, adjustable mould were first developed which could be adjusted without the mould being removed from the casting machine. More recently, as an alternative to slab slitting, the slab width can be changed during the actual operation. In one design, the mould taper can be adjusted by using different gear ratios for moving the top and bottom of the narrow mould faces.

A. G. C. System
(Automatic Gauge Control) Hydraulic or electric system th at supplies the force to the A.G.C. roll force cylinders.

Age Hardening
A process of aging at atmospheric temperature that increases hardness and strength and ordinarily decreases ductility gradually. Age hardening usually follows rapid cooling or cold working. Takes effect on all cold rolled sheets in storage except fully aluminum killed.

Aging
A change in the properties of certain metal and alloys (such as steel) that occurs gradually with time at atmospheric temperatures (natural aging) or more rapidly at moderately elevated temperatures (artificial or accelerated aging) after a hot working heat treatment or cold working operation. Artificial aging refers to : quench aging (aging following quenching) and strain aging (aging induced by cold-working). Typical properties impacted are: hardness, yield strength, tensile strength, ductility, impact value, formability, magnetic properties, etc. See also Non-aging and artificial aging.

Agglomerating Processes
Fine particles of limestone (flux) and iron ore are difficult to handle and transport because of dusting and decomposition, so the powdery material usually is processed into larger pieces. The raw material's properties determine the technique that is used by mills.
Sinter Baked particles that stick together in roughly one-inch chunks. Normally used for iron ore dust collected from the blast furnaces.
Pellets Iron ore or limestone particles are rolled into little balls in a balling drum and hardened by heat.
Briquettes Small lumps are formed by pressing material together. Hot Iron Briquetting (HBI) is a concentrated iron ore substitute for scrap for use in electric furnaces.
Nodules Fine iron bearing materials moving through a rotary kiln are formed into nodules or lumps by the rolling of the charge heated to incipient fusion temperatures.

Air Hardening
Hardening by cooling in air or gas at ambient temperature from a temperature above the transformation range.

Air Heater Tubes
Tubes used for heating air by means of hot gases, the air passing either inside or outside the tubes.

AISI (American Iron and Steel Institute)
An association of North American companies that mine iron ore and produce steel products. There are 50 member companies and more than 100 associate members, which include customers that distribute, process, or consume steel. The AISI has reorganized into a North American steel trade association, representing the interests of Canada, Mexico, and the United States.

Alkaline Cleaner
Uses an alkaline solution, usually sodium hydroxide, to clean residual oils and iron fines left on the strip from the cold reduction process.

Alkyd
A type of resin made from a polyhydroxy alcohol combined chemically with the acids of various oils. They are particularly adapted for use where hardness and high gloss are required. Used largely for outside decoration.

Alligatoring
The longitudinal splitting of flat slabs in a plane parallel to the rolled surface. Also known as fishmouthing.

Alloy
A substance having metallic properties consisting of two or more elements in which the major constituent is metal, or of metallic and non-metallic elements which are miscible with each other when molten, and have not separated into distinct layers when solid.

Alloying Element
An element (metal or non-metal) added during the making of steel for the purpose of increasing corrosion resistance, hardness, or strength. The metals used most commonly as alloying elements in stainless steel include chromium, nickel, and molybdenum.

Alloy Steel
An iron-based mixture is considered to be an alloy steel when manganese is greater than 1.65%, silicon over 0.5%, copper above 0.6%, or other minimum quantities of alloying elements such as chromium, nickel, molybdenum, vanadium, lead, niobium or tungsten are present. An enormous variety of distinct properties can be created for the steel by substituting these elements in the recipe.

Alloy Tool Steels
The principle functions of the alloying elements in tool steels are to increase hardenability ; to form hard, wear-resistant alloy carbides; and to increase resistance to softening on tempering. The alloy tool steels may be roughly classified according to the extent of their utilization of these three functions :

1. Relatively Low-alloy Tools Steels : These are of higher hardenability that the plain carbon tool steels in order that they may be hardened in heavier sections or with less drastic quenches and thereby less distortion.

2. Intermediate Alloy Tool Steels : These steels usually contain elements such as tungsten, molybdenum or vanadium, which form hard, were-resistant carbides.

3. High-speed Tool Steels : These contain large amounts of the carbide-forming elements which serve not only to furnish wear-resisting carbides but also to promote secondary hardening and thereby to increase resistance to softening at elevated temperature.

Alloy Surcharge
The addition to the producer's selling price included in order to offset raw material cost increases caused by higher alloy prices.

Alumina
Aluminium oxide (Al2O3), a common constituent of many refractory materials used in steel making.

Aluminum Killed Steel (Special Killed)
Steel deoxidized with aluminum in order to reduce the oxygen content to a minimum so that no reaction occurs between carbon and oxygen during solidification.

Anneal
A process, consisting of heating to and holding at a suitable temperature followed by cooling at a suitable rate, used primarily to soften metallic materials, such as steel. This process also simultaneously produces desired changes in microstructure, as in other properties, such as improvement of mechanical or electrical properties, removing stresses, increase in stability in dimensions, facilitation of cold work, improving machinability, etc. Also see Continuous Anneal and Batch Anneal.

Annealing
What A heat or thermal treatment process by which a previously cold-rolled steel coil is made more suitable for forming and bending. The steel sheet is heated to a designated temperature for a sufficient amount of time and then cooled.
Why The bonds between the grains of the metal are stretched when a coil is cold rolled, leaving the steel brittle and breakable. Annealing re-crystallizes the grain structure of steel by allowing for new bonds to be formed at the high temperature. Annealing may be done to induce softness, improving machinability, improving cold-working properties, obtaining a desired structure, reducing stresses and to facilitate diffusion process.
How There are two ways to anneal cold-rolled steel coils : batch and continuous.
(1) Batch (Box). Three to four coils are stacked on top of each other, and a cover is placed on top. For up to three days, the steel is heated in a non-oxygen atmosphere (so it will not rust) and slowly cooled.
(2) Continuous. Normally part of a coating line, the steel is uncoiled and run through a series of vertical loops within a heater: The temperature and cooling rates are controlled to obtain the desired mechanical properties for the steel.
The various annealing processes are : full annealing, sub-critical (or process) annealing, isothermal annealing and spheroidization annealing.

Anneal to Temper
A final partial anneal that softens a cold worked non-ferrous alloy to a specified level of hardness or tensile strength.

Anodes
Tin bars that are put in the plater cells and are important to the plating process in the Tin Mill.

API
American Petroleum Institute.

Arc Heating
A method of heating steel by electric current in which the current is passed through an ionized gaseous medium and the heat radiated by the arc generated is utilized. This practice can be applied through two methods : (a) arcs pass between electrodes supported in the furnace above the metal. In this method, known as indirect-arc heating, the metal is heated solely by radiation from the arcs. Or, (b) arcs pass from the electrodes to the metal. In this method, known as direct-arc heating, the current flows through the metal charge so that the heat developed by the electrical resistance of the metal, though relatively small in amount, is added to that radiated from the arcs.

Argon-Oxygen Decarburization (AOD)
What A process for further refinement of stainless steel through reduction of carbon content.
Why The amount of carbon in stainless steel must be lower than that in carbon steel or lower alloy steel (i.e., steel with alloying element content below 5%). While electric arc furnaces (EAF) are the conventional means of melting and refining stainless steel, AOD is an economical supplement, as operating time is shorter and temperatures are lower than in EAF steel making. Additionally, using AOD for refining stainless steel increases the availability of the EAF for melting purposes.
How Molten, unrefined steel is transferred from the EAF into a separate vessel. A mixture of argon and oxygen is blown from the bottom of the vessel through the melted steel. Cleaning agents are added to the vessel along with these gases to eliminate impurities, while the oxygen combines with carbon in the unrefined steel to reduce the carbon level. The presence of argon enhances the affinity of carbon for oxygen and thus facilitates the removal of carbon.

Argon Rinse
To homogenise the melt temperature and composition and also to assist the flotation of deoxidation products during ladle refining of steel, the argon is blown through the melt at a rate of 0.08-0.13 nm3/min for 3 to 5 minutes.

Argon Trim
To facilitate the dissolution of ladle additions during refining of steel, the argon is blown through the melt at a rate of 0.30-0.45 nm3/min.

Argon Stir
To achieve slag-metal mixing in ladle desulphurization of steel during refining, the argon is blown through the melt at a rate of 0.3-0.5 nm3/min.

Artificial Aging
Aging above room temperature.

ASTM
American Society for Testing and Materials. A non-profit organization that provides a forum for producers, users, ultimate consumers, and those having a general interest (representatives of government and academia) to meet on common ground and write standards for materials, products, systems, and services.

ASTM Standards
A series of documents, approved and published by ASTM, that include specifications or requirements, practices, guides, test methods, etc., covering various materials, products, systems or services. In the steel industry, the steel related ASTM standards are used by both the producers and users to ensure that a steel product or service meets all intended requirements. See American Society for Testing and Materials.

Atmosphere Valve
A valve that is located in the exhaust line of a turbine and is designed to open up and get a positive pressure in the exhaust line.

Atomic Hydrogen Welded Tube
Tube made by forming strip, usually of stainless or heat-resisting steel, into tubular form and welding the joint by the atomic hydrogen process.

Atomizing Steam
Low pressure steam which is introduced to the oil gun to help atomize the oil, to assist the burning process, and to keep the oil gun from plugging.

Attemperator
Header connecting the primary and finishing superheaters into which feed water is sprayed to control the final temperature of the steam leaving the boiler.

Austempering
Cooling (quenching) an austenitised steel at a rate high enough to suppress formation of high temperature transformation products, then holding the steel at a temperature below that for pearlite formation and above that for martensite formation until transformation to an essentially bainitic structure is complete.

Austenite
Generally a solid solution of one or more alloying elements in a face centered cubic polymorph of iron (g iron). Specifically, in carbon steels , the interstitial solid solution of carbon g iron.

Austenitic
The largest category of stainless steel, generally non-magnetic, accounting for about 70% of all production. Refers to a particular grain structure of steel which in normal steel exists at high temperature. In stainless steel, this structure exists at room temperature and imparts certain characteristic properties. The austenitic class offers the most resistance to corrosion in the stainless group, owing to its substantial nickel content and higher levels of chromium. Austenitic stainless steels are hardened and strengthened through cold working (changing the structure and shape of steel by applying stress at low temperature) instead of by heat treatment. Ductility (ability to change shape without fracture) is exceptional for the austenitic stainless steels. Excellent weldability and superior performance in very low-temperature services are additional features of this class. Applications include cooking utensils, food processing equipment, exterior architecture, equipment for the chemical industry, truck trailers, and kitchen sinks. The two most common grades are type 304 (the most widely specified stainless steel, providing corrosion resistance in numerous standard services) and type 316 (similar to 304 with molybdenum added, to increase opposition to various forms of deterioration).

Austenitic Grain Size
The size attained by the grains in steel when heated to the autenitic region. This may be revealed by appropriate etching of cross sections after cooling to room temperature.

Automatic
Describes the status of the operation when the O2 pulpit has control and the boiler logic has control.

Automatic Gauge Control
Using hydraulic roll force systems, steel makers have the ability to control precisely their steel sheet's gauge (thickness) while it is traveling at more than 50 miles per hour through the cold mill. Using feedback or feed-forward systems, a computer's gap sensor adjusts the distance between the reduction rolls of the mill 50-60 times per second. These adjustments prevent the processing of any off-gauge steel sheet. The principal components of a computerised AGC are :
1. Mathematical models that adequately describe the process.
2. Instrumentation to measure the required variables of the system.
3. Control equipment, including a digital computer, to perform the required functions for control of the system.

Auto Stamping Plant
A facility that presses a steel blank into the desired form of a car door or hood, for example, with a powerful die (pattern). The steel used must be ductile (malleable) enough to bend into shape without breaking.

Auxiliary Hydraulic System
Hydraulic system that supplies the force to run the various hydraulic cylinders associated with the finishing mill which are not taken care of by the A.G.C. or C.V.C. Hydraulic systems.

Auxiliary Oil Pump
A steam or electric pump that maintains oil pressure on the controls and the bearings of a turbo blower when it is not up to maximum speed.

Auxiliary Pump
Pump on the auxiliary system which supplies the pressure for the system.

AW-100
The hydraulic oil used in all the hydraulic systems located in the finishing mill oil cellar and the furnace hydraulic system.

 





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